Articles Posted in Parenting Time

In an overwhelming number of cases, parents agree to a child custody arrangement without involving the court. However, some child custody cases are brought to court because parents are unable to agree. In those cases, the Supreme Court or Family Court is supposed to allocate to each parent decision-making, care-taking, and access to the child, making these determinations based on what would be in the best interests of the child.

Custody determinations related to best interests depend largely on the court’s assessment of the parties’ credibility, character, and temperament. The higher courts are not supposed to interfere with these determinations, made by a trial court, unless they lack a sound and substantial basis in the record.

Under New York Family Court Act § 251, the court can order anyone within its jurisdiction and the parent or other person legally responsible for the care of a child within its jurisdiction to be examined by a physician, psychologist, or psychiatrist designated for that purpose if the examination serves the purposes of the act. This person can provide a forensic evaluation that allows the court to determine which custody and visitation arrangement would be in the best interests of the child.

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Child Custody disputes and Divorces are complicated at the best of times.  Often, legally breaking down a relationship becomes moredifficult when children are involved. When a mother and father choose to separate or divorce, they not only have to think about the steps that should be taken to improve their chances of pursuing their own best interests, but they also should think carefully about the best interests of their children. That is the standard that a New York court would use.

While, in an ideal scenario, fathers and mothers seeking a divorce would carefully come to a decision about custody agreements, child support, and parenting time or visitation together, using a mediation method or collaborative law – without the strain of battling the issue out in court – family law is not always this simple. In some cases, a New York Supreme Court or Family Court judge will be forced to step into the scenario and figure out which parent should be awarded primary physical custody. In these cases, there are many factors for a judge to consider when putting the best interests of a child first, and one is the concept of who can be defined as the “primary caretaker” for the children.  Please note that the primary caretaker status is not determinative of the best interests of the children, rather it is one of the many considerations that can be taken into account. During this blog, I will discuss which details can be provided to show who can be regarded as the primary caretaker of a child, and what it means to be a primary caretaker.  Continue reading

When you apply for a modification of an earlier order in a New York child custody dispute, you’ll have to present evidence showing a change of circumstances to justify that the modification is necessary to protect a child’s best interests. If you stipulated to the earlier order there is case law that stands for the proposition that you can present evidence of any changes from the time of stipulation.

Although you should show that the substantial change occurred since the issuing of the order, the court may consider all relevant factors related to the best interests of the child when determining child custody, sometimes, even, including the behavior of the parents before and at the time of stipulation. In determining whether a change in circumstances warrants the modification of a custody arrangement, the court will look at whether the change implicates the fitness of the custodial parent or affects the nature and quality of the noncustodial parent’s relationship with the child. There may be a time lag between a stipulation and the court’s issuance of an order, but this should not be a lost period for the purposes of presenting evidence to prove that the modification is appropriate.

For example, in the Matter of MMH v. William DH, the court considered a New York mother’s request for a modification of an earlier order. She wanted an order for sole custody and an order that would allow her to move to another state. The father opposed the application for these orders.

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When a custody case is brought to a New York family court, the law requires the papers to be served to the otherside, often in the form of a summons and petition. It is up to the parent that is filing the case to ensure that the other parent in the custody argument receives the papers – generally through in-hand delivery. Ensuring the service of papers is essential, as the law recognizes that there are few things more important in child custody cases than ensuring that every person entitled to make a claim on the behalf of the best interests of the child will receive notice of the proceedings taking place. Importantly, the law dictates that services of a petition and summons should be given at least eight days before the first court appearance is required of the other party. However, in practice, it is worth noting that regardless of how a respondent may receive the notice to attend court – so long as they attend and admit that they were served the papers, then the court will be given jurisdiction, and have the right to proceed with the case.

In cases of custody, visitation, or other matters brought before the family court, I often find that the case is started using an order to show cause, instead of a summons, and a petition. While the petition underlines what the person presenting the case to the court wants to address, the order to show cause specifies how service should be addressed.  When service is directed pursuant to the Order to Show Cause, how to serve the papers is spelled out by the judge who signed the order.  It takes the guess work out of service, however, it then becomes important to precisely comply with the method and timing of service that is directed. Continue reading

Issues of parenting in child custody and visitation cases are often very complicated, as they consider a wide range offactors when determining the best interests of a child. After all, it is the responsibility of the New York court to ensure that their decisions regarding custody orders are made according to the needs of the specific children, or child involved in the case. Because of this, before a final decree is declared in a dissolution, divorce, or custody case, the court of New York might require parents to complete a course of Parental education which may be different and cover different matters depending on the nature of your circumstances.

Although the lessons can be different in parental education classes in regards to such things as format, the general idea of all parent education classes is to help parents separating from a partner or spouse to better understand the way their divorce from an ex-partner might affect their children. This education therefore ensures that the parents have the skills and resources necessary – regardless of whether they are a non-custodial, or custodial parent – to provide the appropriate care for their child, and help them move through a transitional period in their lives with as little distress as possible. Continue reading

This blog article will discuss the pros and cons of overnight parenting time to the non-residential custodial parent onschool nights.  Discovering a schedule for parenting time or child visitation that works for both parties involved in a divorce or child custody case, as well as the children in question can be one of the most important things a single parent does. After all, child custody cases or divorce is difficult enough upon existing family dynamics, without the confusion of an ever-changing and disruptive visitation schedule adding extra problems into the mix. Whether drafting an initial example for a possible parenting time plan, or attempting to make sense of the schedule that the court has presented to you, it’s crucial to remember that different scenarios work better with different circumstances. Ultimately, the visitation that is ordered by the court, and the plans you come up with through mediation and other measures, should reflect the best interests of the children.

Although each family is unique, there are some arrangements in the world of custody that have gathered more popularity than others – remaining a favorite of many family court counselors and parents who choose to develop their own parenting plans. Indeed, I often see many parents opting for the most common “alternating weekend” schedule, with some modifications here and there designed to cater for specific families. However, parenting time schedules are much more flexible than you might think, and there are other options available when it comes to meeting the individual needs of each unique family. For instance, you might find that your ideal schedule allows for extended weekend visitations that permit the children to have more time with the non-custodial parent. On the other hand, you might even look into the possibility of mid-week overnight visitation.  However, sometimes that might not be in the best interest of the children.  Whether or not overnight visitation on school nights is appropriate really depends on the specific family. Continue reading

Grueling custody battles between parents are rich with emotion and frustration, which means that they areperfectly poised to become hostile and antagonistic. In most circumstances, the greatest amount of conflict may not even be caused by addressing significant life-altering decisions, but when dealing with the day-to-day agreements of where to meet to exchange children, or how to provide the correct educational and medical care. Because of the significant friction in custody cases, it can be difficult to find a scenario that works well for both parents, and the children involved. However, in New York and Long Island, the presence of a parenting coordinator, as part of the custody and parenting time order, could be the tool required to prompt an amicable agreement for the resolution of future issues.

Usually, the parenting coordinator comes in to assist with decision making issues, after the case is done.  After all, if there are two parents voting there could be ties on certain issues.  How will the ties be broken?  Continue reading

When making custody determinations, a court is likely to consider whether a custodial parent is likely to encourage the child’s relationship with the noncustodial parent. It is considered in a child’s best interests to have a relationship with both parents. This means that a court will not look favorably upon a custodial parent who interferes with children’s relationship with the noncustodial parent. The noncustodial parent may have grounds to request a modification of a child custody order if the custodial parent tries to harm his or her relationship with the kids.

In Musachio v. Musachio, a New York married couple stipulated to a child custody settlement that was supposed to survive and not be merged into any divorce judgment that followed. The parties had agreed that they would have joint custody of their four children. The defendant (the mother) would have residential custody.

In 2008, the court granted the father’s application to get temporary sole custody of the four children. It also suspended his child support obligations based on information that the mother had interfered substantially with his relationship to their children.

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In the courts of New York and Long Island, as well as legal institutions throughout the world, it’s notuncommon for legal terminology to leave parents confused when it comes to matters of custody. Indeed, in some cases, parents or guardians may be left feeling uncertain about the level of custody they have – and what certain orders imply regarding their decision making authority in reference to their children. Some people even suggest that the statutes employed in New York are harder to understand than those in other states, as they do not necessarily make direct reference to physical or legal custody, but only the word “custody” which can be taken to mean the concept of total custody over a child or children. However, although it can be difficult to understand, most New York custody orders I have been involved with, have addressed the varied aspects of custody, from legal and physical custody, to sole and joint orders, even if the terms aren’t easy for parents to follow.

More often than not, in New York courts, the term “joint custody” will refer to joint legal custody. I try to ensure that my clients know this when going into a case, as legal custody is significantly different to “physical” custody. Legal joint custody implies that both of the parents involved will have the right to decide upon important issues regarding their child – such as educational or medical matters. When a divorce or custody resolution is amicable, parents may voluntarily agree to a joint custody agreement and a judge will almost invariably approve it. However, most New York courts will not force joint parenting on a family. Indeed, when parents must approach the court to have a judge determine what is best for the custody of a child, the implication is that the couple does not get along well enough to make decisions together that are appropriate for their child. Continue reading

The short answer is yes, if the best interests of the children suggests different parents should have custody, as the recent Long Island case summarized below illustrates.  Child custody battles everywhere, as in Nassau County, New York can be extremely difficult, both for the parents and for the children. If a couple is not able to mediate and come to an agreement between themselves, the court must often devise creative solutions to highly charged and sensitive problems. The best interests of the children are of paramount importance to the court when making a custody determination.

In Kramer v. Kramer, the New York Supreme Court of Nassau County considered an acrimonious child custody battle, within a divorce, in a dysfunctional family. The couple had married in 1992. The husband mostly worked as a construction supervisor. The wife completed a master’s degree in early childhood education at the time they married and worked for a short period at a Jewish school. After that, she stayed home to raise the kids. The case was filed in 2011. At the time she commenced divorce proceedings, seeking temporary sole custody of the kids, maintenance, and exclusive occupancy of the marital home, she was working as an event coordinator.

In the case, the wife alleged that the husband had drained their joint bank accounts and reduced his support for the kids and her. The defendant claimed the plaintiff, his wife, turned the three oldest of his four kids against him. He also claimed she was unstable and had an undiagnosed mental illness.

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